Optional Configurations Linux

Get System Details

Operating System

lsb_release -a
lsb_release -as # Short Information
lsb_release -sc # OS Codename
lsb_release --help

CPU Info

sudo dmidecode -t processor


nproc               # How many Processing Units
cpuid               # Must install cpuid from terminal
cat /proc/cpuinfo   # Lots of info

VGA Info

sudo lshw -C display

Motherboard Info

sudo dmidecode -t baseboard


sudo dmidecode -t bios

Memory and Usage Info

free -h             # Human readable, or do --help for options
top or htop         # Must install htop
vmstat -s
cat /proc/meminfo   # Lots of info


Disk Space

df -B MB    # In Megabtyes,  etc

Or install ncdu and run

ncdu /

Disks UUID

ls -al /dev/disk/by-uuid/

GUI Processes


Startup Times

You can find out which service takes how much time to finish starting up by entering the following command in terminal:

systemd-analyze blame

Overall startup time you can find via:

systemd-analyze time


List all installed Packages

dpkg -l

List only packages which were expressly installed

aptitude search '~i!~M'

Other Commands


To taking screenshot from terminal run this:


With delay 5 seconds

gnome-screenshot --delay 5

With delay 5 seconds and only window

gnome-screenshot -w --delay 5

List all Keybindings

gsettings list-recursively  org.gnome.desktop.wm.keybindings | sort | more

See your keypressed:


Or for a lot of details:

xev | grep KeyPress

Better Local Folder

This is less painful when creating a group with rwx permissions for /usr/local

sudo groupadd local
sudo usermod -a -G local jesse

sudo chgrp -R local /usr/local
sudo chmod -R g+rwx /usr/local

Use 32Bit on 64bit

You can use 32Bit applications if you like, sometimes this is useful.

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y unetbootin


To enable Networking, and make it accessible to all computers such as Windows also first install Samba:

$ sudo apt install -y samba

Then edit the Samba config:

$ vim /etc/samba/smb.conf

Under [global] change the workgroup to what you use, the default is WORKGROUP:

workgroup = WORKGROUP

Then you will have to reload your Session.

Order of Grub

If you are running Grub as your default boot-loader, you can use this application to make it easier to change the order.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizer
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y grub-customizer

Load the application either with <Super> and look for grub customizer or terminal gksudo grub-customizer.

Go to the General Settings tab, and you’ll see default entry.

  • Click the drop-down list and you can either select Entry By Order (Left Column) Or a specific Item (Right Column).
  • If you are dual booting Windows and want Windows the default, Select the right column for Windows.
  • The reason is if more items are added, perhaps new kernels, then if Position 5 which held Windows will no longer be the default.

Mounting Drives

Mounting of Local Drives

Open /etc/fstab

sudo vim /etc/fstab

Add to /etc/fstab this line (You can get DISK UUID by command ls -al /dev/disk/by-uuid/):

For NTFS disk:

UUID=[DISK UUID] /media/D ntfs-3g defaults,windows_names,locale=en_US.utf8 0 2

For ext4 disk:

UUID=[DISK UUID] /media/D ext4 defaults 0 2

After run

sudo mount -a

Mounting of Network Drives

Open /etc/fstab

sudo vim /etc/fstab

And add:

If requires authorization:

username@remote_address:/remote/path /local/path fuse.sshfs delay_connect,_netdev,idmap=user,uid=1000,gid=1000,noatime,default_permissions,IdentityFile=/home/USER/.ssh/id_rsa,reconnect,transform_symlinks,allow_other 0 0

If not requires:

//remote_address/remote/path /local/path cifs guest,iocharset=utf8,uid=1000,gid=1000,file_mode=0777,dir_mode=0777,noperm,_netdev 0 0

After run

sudo mount -a

Mounting Amazon Cloud Drive

Install Prerequisites

sudo apt install -y python3 python3-appdirs python3-dateutil python3-requests python3-sqlalchemy python3-pip

Install acd_cli (https://github.com/yadayada/acd_cli)

cd ~ && sudo pip3 install --upgrade git+https://github.com/yadayada/acd_cli.git

Initiate «sync» which will launch a browser (chrome/lynx/etc) to amazon.com and setup your oauth key.

acd_cli sync

Copy/Paste and store your oauth data. Note: it will most likely have improper newline breaks. Fixup in your favorite text editor.

vim ~/.cache/acd_cli/oauth_data

Add your user to the «fuse» group to allow mounting

sudo addgroup <username> fuse

Mount the root of your Amazon Cloud drive to the /media/amazon directory

mkdir /media/amazon
acd_cli mount /media/amazon


-d     exclude duplicate files from upload
-x     upload threads

e.g. Upload your local /media/videos directory to the root of your Amazon Cloud Drive.

acd_cli upload -d -x 4 /media/videos /


Generate a New SSH Key

ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "your_email@example.com"

Connecting to a Host

ssh user@host.com  (default port is 22)
ssh user@host.com -p 8000 (connect to specific port)
ssh user@host.com -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa (connect with specific ssh key)

.ssh Folder Permissions

chmod 700 ~/.ssh
chmod 644 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/known_hosts
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Using the Config File

You can also create a ~/.ssh/config file and store entries such as:

Host aws
Hostname host.amazonaws.com
Port 22
Identityfile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
User myusername

Host my-vps
Port 22
User root

You can then simply type:

ssh aws
ssh my-vps

Convert SSH to PEM

Sometimes you may need a PEM format SSH Key. You can easily add this alongside your other SSH keys.

openssl rsa -in ~/.ssh/keyname_rsa -outform pem > keyname_rsa.pem
chmod 700 keyname_rsa.pem


Generate a New GPG Key

Open a terminal and type:

gpg --gen-key

GPG will now ask you a number of questions about the type of key you want to generate. Follow the steps below to select the default option each time.

Check that your key has been generated by typing

gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG

and, if successful

sec   4096R/3AA5C34371567BD2 2016-03-10 [expires: 2017-03-10]
uid                          Hubot 
ssb   4096R/42B317FD4BA89E7A 2016-03-10

Add variables in your .bashrc

export GPGKEY=3AA5C34371567BD2

Generate ASCII Armored Version of Public Key

gpg --output gpg.asc --export -a $GPGKEY

Uploading The Key to Ubuntu Keyserver

gpg --send-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com $GPGKEY

You can check your keys on the http://keyserver.ubuntu.com/

Signing Git Commits Using GPG

To configure your Git client to sign commits by default for a local repository, in Git versions 2.0.0 and above, run

git config commit.gpgsign true

To sign all commits by default in any local repository on your computer, run

git config --global commit.gpgsign true

If you want sign one commit manually:

git commit -S -m "commit message"

If you want to use GUI clients for committing, you have to add some options to your ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf file


Backup The GPG Key

cp ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg /path/to/backups/
cp ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg /path/to/backups/
cp ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg /path/to/backups/
# or, instead of backing up trustdb...
gpg --export-ownertrust > ownertrust-gpg.txt

Restore The GPG Key

cp /path/to/backups/*.gpg ~/.gnupg/
# or, if you exported the ownertrust
gpg --import-ownertrust ownertrust-gpg.txt

Enable Native Virtualization

Instal tools

sudo apt install -y qemu-kvm libvirt-bin ubuntu-vm-builder bridge-utils

Check if supported by hardware

sudo egrep '(vmx|svm)' --color=always /proc/cpuinfo

If nothing is displayed, then your processor doesn’t support hardware virtualization, and you must stop here.



If you have KVM, you will see: «INFO: Your CPU supports KVM extensions INFO: /dev/kvm exists KVM acceleration can be used»

Next, add your user to the KVM group and libvirtd group. To do so, type:

sudo adduser $(whoami) kvm
sudo adduser $(whoami) libvirtd

After the installation, re-login so that the changes take effect. You can test the installation by typing:

sudo virsh -c qemu:///system list

Format USB

Enter sudo mode

sudo su

List available disks and detect where it was mounted: /dev/sd[1 letter][optionally 1 number]. For example, /dev/sdc or /dev/sdc1

fdisk -l



Unmount drive

umount sd[1 letter][optionally 1 number]

Format to FAT32

mkfs.vfat /dev/sd[1 letter][optionally 1 number]

You can use mkfs.ntfs for NTFS, mkfs.ext4 for EXT4 etc.

Eject drive

eject /dev/sd[1 letter]

Write iso Image to USB

List available disks and detect where it was mounted: /dev/sd[1 letter][optionally 1 number]. For example, /dev/sdc or /dev/sdc1

fdisk -l



If you want write Windows ISO on the USB, use this method: USB Maker for Windows ISO on Linux

Make sure the USB device is unmounted (not safely removed, but unmounted) If it is mounted you can unmount it:

sudo umount /dev/sd[1 letter][optionally 1 number]

For writing image run:

sudo dd bs=4M if=path/to/your/iso/file.iso of=/dev/sd[that 1 letter]

Convert .ISO to .IMG format

Install the genisoimage

sudo apt install -y genisoimage

And after run

geteltorito -o dest.img source.iso

Add Printers


You must download HPLIP software from here: https://developers.hp.com/hp-linux-imaging-and-printing

After install .run package (how?) and run. Follow the wizard and add neccessary HP printer

Update BIOS on Laptop/PC

You can see BIOS version via BIOS Info command

Update BIOS on Lenovo

  1. Go to support.lenovo.com (or better use a search engine because the Lenovo website is ugly) and search for the BIOS upgrade of your laptop model.
  2. Download the most recent ISO file. Look for «BIOS bootable update CD».
  3. Convert the ISO image to IMG format via geteltorito -o bios.img g2uj18us.iso Convert .ISO to .IMG format
  4. Insert any USB stick into your laptop. The image file is just ~50 MB in size so even USB sticks with low capacity will work. Keep in mind that the stick will be completely overwritten.
  5. If you are in a graphical environment then unmount the USB stick.
  6. Find out the device name of the stick. For example /dev/sdb (show devices via sudo fdisk -l). Don’t just assume it’s sdb. If it’s on another device on your laptop then you will destroy your data.
  7. Copy the image to the USB stick: sudo dd if=bios.img of=/dev/sdb bs=1M
  8. Reboot your laptop and press F12 for booting device from your stick.
  9. Make sure your laptop has its power supply plugged in. (It will refuse to update otherwise.)
  10. Follow the instructions.

Sniff Local Traffic

BetterCAP is a powerful, flexible and portable tool created to perform various types of MITM attacks against a network, manipulate HTTP, HTTPS and TCP traffic in realtime, sniff for credentials and much more. Full documentation https://www.bettercap.org

Install dependencies

sudo apt install -y build-essential ruby-dev libpcap-dev

And install BetterCAP

sudo gem install bettercap

You can run sniffing via

sudo bettercap --sniffer

Play Sound Through Multiple Outputs

Install paprefs package

sudo apt install -y paprefs

Go to the PulseAudio Preferences and on the Simultaneous Output tab check Add virtual output device for simultaneous output on all local sound cards

After that restart pulseaudio

pulseaudio -k

Then go to your sound settings and you will see the option to output to multiple sound devices.

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Installation Packages

Login to your Linux user and go to your home directory,

cd ~

Run these commands and tweak them as needed. The -y flag installs without a prompt. Run these commands from the terminal.

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

Enable PPAs

PPA’s are provided within categories below, I highly recommend using PPA’s or at least installing this package in case you ever use them.

Enable Canonical partners repository

sudo add-apt-repository -y "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ $(lsb_release -sc) partner" && sudo apt update

System Tools

This is for tweaking the UI

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y\

Install Nvidia Drivers

You can check your VGA Info

Find out the right driver version for your graphics card on http://www.nvidia.com/Download/index.aspx

Install Nvidia Drivers

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:graphics-drivers/ppa

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y nvidia-XXX

Type your version instead XXX

And after select your installed driver from drivers tab

sudo software-properties-gtk

Remove Nvidia Drivers

sudo add-apt-repository -r ppa:graphics-drivers/ppa

To Edit Nvidia Settings; Type the following in the Global Launcher (Super Key/Windows Key):

nvidia settings

Install ATI Drivers

For installing ATI drivers, read this official documentation: http://support.amd.com/en-us/kb-articles/Pages/AMDGPU-PRO-Install.aspx


Install the Utilities:

sudo apt install -y vim git mercurial meld curl htop xclip unzip gdebi preload bleachbit ubuntu-restricted-extras cifs-utils unace unrar zip p7zip-full p7zip-rar sharutils rar openssh-server lm-sensors whois traceroute nmap font-manager python-gpgme sshfs mc libavcodec-extra libdvd-pkg nfs-kernel-server openvpn easy-rsa network-manager-openvpn-gnome libdbusmenu-gtk4:i386 exfat-fuse exfat-utils

To setup the git defaults

git config --global user.name your name
git config --global user.email your@email.com

That will create a ~/.gitconfig with:

    email = you@email.com
    name = your name

RedShift For Eye Strain

sudo apt install -y redshift

Create your configuration file:

sudo vim ~/.config/redshift.conf

Adjust the temperatures you prefer. I like mine to be very yellow and dim. (The lower the dimmer)

; Set the screen brightness. Default is 1.0.
; It is also possible to use different settings for day and night
; There are more settings for Gamma, Location Provider, Manual Location, etc.

Close and reload redshift. If you cannot find the icon anywhere run this in terminal:

pkill redshift-gtk redshift

If RedShift gives you a Geoclue2 error do this:

sudo vim /etc/geoclue/geoclue.conf

Append these lines at the bottom:


A newer version of redshift will install a desktop file so a Geoclue2 warning won’t happen on newer systems.

Dark Theme

I prefer Vivacious ZBlackout Blue Pro Theme

Add repository

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ravefinity-project/ppa
sudo apt update


sudo apt install -y vivacious-colors-gtk-dark
sudo apt install -y vivacious-colors-gtk-light
sudo apt install -y vivacious-unity-gtk-dark
sudo apt install -y vivacious-unity-gtk-light

Use the Unity Tweak Tool to set vivacious-zblackout-blue-pro

Sun Java


sudo apt-add-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y oracle-java8-installer

Set Oracle Java as main in system

sudo vim /etc/environment

Add this line


And update alternatives sudo update-alternatives —config java


To run windows applications Wine is the best option. I often use HeidiSQL with Wine.

wget https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/Release.key
sudo apt-key add Release.key
sudo apt-add-repository 'https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/'
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y winehq-stable


Use Nautilus-Actions to easily and graphically create custom context menu options for Ubuntu’s Nautilus file manager. If you don’t want to create your own, you can install Nautilus-Actions-Extra to get a package of particularly useful user-created tools.

sudo apt install -y nautilus-actions

After installing it, quit and restart the Nautilus file manager with the following command. You can also press Alt+F2 and type this command instead of running it in a terminal.

nautilus -q

Launch the Nautilus-Actions Configuration Tool from the Dash after installing it.

You also can install some Nautilus extensions

sudo apt install -y nautilus-admin nautilus-meld nautilus-checksum-menu


Hardinfo is a Everest/Aida alternative for Linux. Its shows system information

sudo apt install -y hardinfo


Caffeine is a tool used to temporarily prevent the activation of the screensaver / lock screen / sleep mode, when using full-screen windows. The application is useful if you’re using a video player that doesn’t do this automatically, when listening to music, etc.

sudo apt install -y caffeine

Note: After the installation, the command-line version of Caffeine is set to start automatically on login. If you want the indicator to start automatically, you’ll have to add «caffeine-indicator» to your startup applications.

GNU Screen

Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical terminal between several processes, typically interactive shells. Each virtual terminal provides the functions of the DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ANSI X3.64 (ISO 6429) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g., insert/delete line and support for multiple character sets). There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows the user to move text regions between windows. When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in it (or the specified command) and then gets out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally would. Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including more shells), kill the current window, view a list of the active windows, turn output logging on and off, copy text between windows, view the scrollback history, switch between windows, etc. All windows run their programs completely independent of each other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the users terminal.

sudo apt install -y screen


A fast, highly customizable system info script

Neofetch is a CLI system information tool written in BASH. Neofetch displays information about your system next to an image, your OS logo, or any ASCII file of your choice. The main purpose of Neofetch is to be used in screenshots to show other users what OS/Distro you’re running, what Theme/Icons you’re using etc.


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:dawidd0811/neofetch
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y neofetch


Partition editor for graphically managing disk partitions https://gparted.sourceforge.io/

sudo apt install -y gparted

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Other Tools

Google Chrome

Add google chrome repository and install

    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google-chrome.list'
    wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add -
    sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y google-chrome-stable

Then launch it with `$ google-chrome` and you can pin it to a unity bar.



wget -q "http://deb.playonlinux.com/public.gpg" -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo wget http://deb.playonlinux.com/playonlinux_xenial.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/playonlinux.list
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y playonlinux



sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://linux.dropbox.com/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dropbox.list'
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 1C61A2656FB57B7E4DE0F4C1FC918B335044912E
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y dropbox

Sublime Text 3

A sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose

Add repository:

wget -qO - https://download.sublimetext.com/sublimehq-pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt install apt-transport-https

Stable version:

echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/stable/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

Dev version:

echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/dev/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list    


sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y sublime-text

Configuration of synchronization between devices explained here



sudo apt -y install pidgin

Configuring google talk account


  • Protocol: XMPP
  • Username: [username without @]
  • Domain: [username domain after @]
  • Password: [account password]


  • Connect Port: 5222 Connect Server: talk.google.com


Download from http://dbeaver.jkiss.org/download/


VirtualBox is a powerful x86 and AMD64/Intel64 virtualization product for enterprise as well as home use.

Check latest version number on https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads

During writing this manual, latest version was 5.2


sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian $(lsb_release -sc) contrib" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/virtualbox.list'
wget -q http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian/oracle_vbox_2016.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y virtualbox-5.2

Suggested to Enable Native Virtualization

Also you can read Virtual Machine Related

Android Studio


Download Android Studio from https://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html Extract the archive file into an appropriate location for your applications, eg: /opt. Use the filename of your downloaded archive, in my example android-studio-ide-143.2821654-linux.zip

sudo unzip android-studio-ide-143.2821654-linux.zip -d /opt

To launch Android Studio, navigate to the /opt/android-studio/bin directory in a terminal and execute ./studio.sh

After change PATH

vim ~/.bashrc

And add lines:

export PATH=${PATH}:/path-to-android-sdk/tools
export PATH=${PATH}:/path-to-android-sdk/platform-tools

Smart Git

Canonical Partner’s repository must be enabled for installation via terminal:


sudo apt install -y smartgit

Or download from http://www.syntevo.com/smartgit/download install and run /usr/share/smartgit/bin/smartgit.sh



sudo apt install -y filezilla

Google Music Player

This is a beautiful cross platform Desktop Player for Google Play Music.

deb file can be downloaded from https://www.googleplaymusicdesktopplayer.com/



sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://repository.spotify.com testing non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/spotify.list'
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y spotify-client


Download from http://www.teamviewer.com/en/download/linux.aspx

Meld Diff Tool

sudo apt install -y meld


To install Vagrant, you need to download and run the installation kit. Before going further, be sure that you have dpkg and Virtual box installed:

sudo apt install -y dpkg-dev virtualbox-dkms

Make sure linux headers already installed

sudo apt install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)

Go to the https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html page of Vagrant and check for the latest release. During writing this manual, last version was 2.0.1

wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/2.0.1/vagrant_2.0.1_x86_64.deb
sudo dpkg -i vagrant_2.0.1_x86_64.deb

Reconfigure the VirtualBox DKMS:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure virtualbox-dkms



wget -qO- https://get.docker.com/ | sh

Working with Docker is a pain if your user is not configured correctly, so add your user to the docker group with the following command.

sudo usermod -aG docker $(whoami)

Log out and log in from your server to activate your new groups.

sudo apt install -y docker-compose

Audacious Audio Player


sudo apt install -y audacious


XnView MP is the enhanced version of XnView Classic. It is a powerful cross-platform media browser, viewer and converter. Compatible with more than 500 formats such as PSD etc.

Download and install from http://www.xnview.com/en/xnviewmp/#downloads

Sticky Notes

Just like Google Keep and Windows Sticky Notes, it allows you to jot down thoughts, lists, and reminders on desktop.


sudo apt-add-repository ppa:umang/indicator-stickynotes
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y indicator-stickynotes


Guake is a dropdown terminal made for the GNOME desktop environment. Guake’s style of window is based on an FPS game, and one of its goals is to be easy to reach.


sudo apt install -y guake



sudo apt install -y skype

While we’re at it, let’s also fix Skype on 64bit not using the correct theme, by installing the missing dependencies using the following command:

sudo apt install -y gtk2-engines-murrine:i386 gtk2-engines-pixbuf:i386


Add repository

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:atareao/telegram


sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y telegram


Install via terminal:

wget -O - https://packagecloud.io/slacktechnologies/slack/gpgkey  | sudo apt-key add -

Create the file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/slack.list with the following content

deb https://packagecloud.io/slacktechnologies/slack/debian/ jessie main

And run:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y slack-desktop

Or download .deb from https://slack.com/downloads and install manually



sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:otto-kesselgulasch/gimp

After run:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y gimp gimp-data gimp-plugin-registry gimp-data-extras

VLC Player

VLC is a free and open source cross-platform multimedia player and framework that plays most multimedia files as well as DVDs, Audio CDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols.


sudo apt install -y vlc

KDEnlive Video Editor


sudo apt install -y kdenlive


You can easily use httpie from terminal: http get https://google.com


sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y httpie


Simple animated GIF screen recorder with an easy to use interface


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:peek-developers/stable
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y peek


Free and open source software for video recording and live streaming https://obsproject.com/.


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:obsproject/obs-studio
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y obs-studio

USB Maker for Windows ISO on Linux

You can easily use Startup Disk Creator and UNetbootin to create Linux to USB. But if you need Windows to USB from your Linux OS use Win USB:

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:colingille/freshlight
sudo sh -c "sed -i 's/wily/vivid/g' /etc/apt/sources.list.d/colingille-ubuntu-freshlight-$(lsb_release -sc).list"
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y winusb

We replace the sources.list back to vivid in order to get it to work for ubuntu 15, that is the purpose of the sed command.


A sophisticated software modeler for agile and concise modeling (http://staruml.io/)

You can download .AppImage file from http://staruml.io/download

Make downloaded file executable and run.

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Linux Apache MySQL PHP

— Installation for the following:

  • PHP 5.6/7.0/7.1/7.2 (and Modules)
  • Apache 2 (and Modules + Dynamic hosts)
  • Nginx (Optional)
  • MySQL
  • Redis
  • and more.


PHP 5.6

It’s important to install php5-dev if you want to compile any add-ons later.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y php5 libpcre3-dev php5-cli php5-cgi php5-common php5-mysql php5-curl php5-gd php5-geoip php5-imagick php5-imap php5-json php5-ldap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-memcached php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xdebug php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl php5-dev

If you are looking for more PHP modules try:

sudo apt-cache search php5-
PHP 7.0

It’s important to install php7.0-dev if you want to compile any add-ons later.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y php7.0-bz2 php7.0-cgi php7.0-cli php7.0-common php7.0-curl php7.0-dev php7.0-enchant php7.0-fpm php7.0-gd php7.0-gmp php7.0-imap php7.0-intl php7.0-json php7.0-ldap php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-odbc php7.0-opcache php7.0-pgsql php7.0-phpdbg php7.0-pspell php7.0-readline php7.0-recode php7.0-sybase php7.0-tidy php7.0-xmlrpc php7.0-xsl php7.0-sqlite3 php7.0-mbstring php7.0-bcmath php7.0-soap php7.0-zip php-xdebug

If you are looking for more PHP modules try:

sudo apt-cache search php7.0-
PHP 7.1

It’s important to install php7.1-dev if you want to compile any add-ons later.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y php7.1-bz2 php7.1-cgi php7.1-cli php7.1-common php7.1-curl php7.1-dev php7.1-enchant php7.1-fpm php7.1-gd php7.1-gmp php7.1-imap php7.1-intl php7.1-json php7.1-ldap php7.1-mcrypt php7.1-mysql php7.1-odbc php7.1-opcache php7.1-pgsql php7.1-phpdbg php7.1-pspell php7.1-readline php7.1-recode php7.1-sybase php7.1-tidy php7.1-xmlrpc php7.1-xsl php7.1-sqlite3 php7.1-mbstring php7.1-bcmath php7.1-soap php7.1-zip php-xdebug

If you are looking for more PHP modules try:

sudo apt-cache search php7.1-
PHP 7.2

It’s important to install php7.2-dev if you want to compile any add-ons later.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ondrej/php
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y php7.2-bz2 php7.2-cgi php7.2-cli php7.2-common php7.2-curl php7.2-dev php7.2-enchant php7.2-fpm php7.2-gd php7.2-gmp php7.2-imap php7.2-intl php7.2-json php7.2-ldap php7.2-mysql php7.2-odbc php7.2-opcache php7.2-pgsql php7.2-phpdbg php7.2-pspell php7.2-readline php7.2-recode php7.2-sybase php7.2-tidy php7.2-xmlrpc php7.2-xsl php7.2-sqlite3 php7.2-mbstring php7.2-bcmath php7.2-soap php7.2-zip php-xdebug

If you are looking for more PHP modules try:

sudo apt-cache search php7.2-


curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php && sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

Disable XDebug for composer

sudo phpdismod -s cli xdebug

And add this lines in your .bashrc file:

# Load xdebug Zend extension with php command
alias php='php -dzend_extension=xdebug.so'
# PHPUnit needs xdebug for coverage. In this case, just make an alias with php command prefix.
alias phpunit='php $(which phpunit)'


wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit.phar && chmod +x phpunit.phar && sudo mv phpunit.phar /usr/local/bin/phpunit


Apache: Installation

For PHP 5.6

sudo apt install -y apache2 libapache2-mod-php5

For PHP 7.*

sudo apt install -y apache2 libapache2-mod-php7.*

Tweak Apache (Remove apache warning about server’s fully qualified domain name)

echo "ServerName localhost" | sudo tee /etc/apache2/conf-available/fqdn.conf
sudo a2enconf fqdn && sudo service apache2 reload
Apache: Enable php-mcrypt & mod_rewrite

Enable mod_rewrite

sudo a2enmod rewrite

Enable php-mcrypt

For PHP 5

sudo php5enmod mcrypt && sudo service apache2 restart

For PHP 7

sudo phpenmod mcrypt && sudo service apache2 restart

If you are looking for more Apache modules try:

sudo apt-cache search libapache2-mod
Apache: Configure dynamic virtualhosts

Enable module vhost_alias

sudo a2enmod vhost_alias

Next, open /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

sudo vim /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

and add the following lines before IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf line.

UseCanonicalName Off

LogFormat "%V %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" dynamic_vhosts
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log dynamic_vhosts

<VirtualHost *:80>
    VirtualDocumentRoot /var/www/domains/%-2+/public_html
    VirtualScriptAlias  /var/www/domains/%-2+/cgi-bin

    <Directory /var/www/domains>
                DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride All
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
                Require all granted


If you want to disable all configured virtual hosts, then comment this line in your config file:

#IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf

This sets up a catch all for any domain coming in over port 80 (the default port for http traffic, if your using https you will need to use 443 — alternatively you could remove the port restriction). The important line here is the VirtualDocumentRoot. The tells Apache where your files will reside on disk. The %0 part takes the whole domain name and inserts it into the path. But I didn’t want to have the .test part of the domain in my folders on disk, otherwise we use %-2+ To illustrate this if we went to a domain somesite.com.test the VirtualDocumentRoot would be:


Now you have to add automatic .test domain resolving on your local machine:

sudo vim /etc/NetworkManager/dnsmasq.d/test-tld

And write:


The first command says *.test requests can’t be forwarded to your real DNS server. The second says *.test resolves to which is localhost.

And restart network-manager:

sudo service network-manager restart


Or if you prefer to use nginx

For stable version

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:nginx/stable

For latest (recommended)

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:nginx/development

And after install

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y nginx


sudo apt install -y mysql-server mysql-client
sudo sed -i 's/bind-address/bind-address =' /etc/mysql/my.cnf


This is a very nice utility https://github.com/dbcli/mycli

pip install mycli

Usage (See the documents from the git link above for more example):

mycli -h localhost -u root
mycli -h localhost -u root -p


sudo apt install -y postgresql libpq-dev


sudo apt install -y memcached php-memcached


Install redis latest stable version

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:chris-lea/redis-server
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y redis-server

ELK Stack

Install ELK stack: Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana

wget -qO - https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt install -y apt-transport-https
echo "deb https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/6.x/apt stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-6.x.list
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y elasticsearch


Install certbot (https://certbot.eff.org)

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot
sudo apt-get update

Generating for nginx:

sudo apt-get install -y python-certbot-nginx 
sudo certbot --nginx

Generating for apache:

sudo apt-get install -y python-certbot-apache 
sudo certbot --apache

You can test automatic renewal for your certificates by running this command:

sudo certbot renew --dry-run

Java Runtime

sudo apt install -y default-jre


sudo apt-add-repository ppa:phalcon/stable
sudo apt update
sudo apt install -y php5-phalcon

Phalcon Dev Tools

This is an easy to use install script that will cleanup after itself. It can also be used for updating:

sudo bash install_phalcon_devtools.sh

To test it run: $ phalcon

Secure Permissions

We will use the Access Control Lists (ACL) or (Filesystem Access Control List). We will use group permissions for folders so you don’t have to make the public writable, because 777 is dangerous.

# Make sure you have ACL installed
sudo apt install -y acl

Look for your main partition with:

$ df

Mine happens to be dev/root, yours may be dev/sda or something. Make sure to replace that below:

# T
sudo /sbin/tune2fs -o +acl /dev/root

To see what file system you are using ext3ext4, etc, use the partition:

sudo file -sL /dev/root

We have to put the partition in read-only mode, then remount it:

sudo /bin/mount -o remount /dev/root

Apply Group

# This sets the Defaults
setfacl -Rd g:www-data:rw /var/www
# This sets future file
setfacl -Rm g:www-data:rw /var/www

To Modify

setfacl -Rm g:www-data:rw /var/www

Otherwise you could always set up a crontab such as:

crontab -e

Then append this to run every five minutes.

*/5 * * * * /home/longman/backup.sh chgrp -R www-data /var/www && chmod g+rw /var/www

Lastly, you could have a deploy script that does this for you, such as Python Fabfile, but that’s another topic.

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— Installation packages: — Pip — Virtualenv

Python is installed by default on Ubuntu, version 2.7 is suitable. I strongly recommend installing python-dev for headers to compile certain PIP packages.

sudo apt install -y python-dev libmysqlclient-dev
sudo apt install -y python-pip
sudo pip install fabric virtualenv virtualenvwrapper django

Manually install Python. python installation required packages

sudo apt -y install build-essential checkinstall
sudo apt -y install libreadline-gplv2-dev libncursesw5-dev \
                             libsqlite3-dev tk-dev libgdbm-dev libc6-dev
sudo apt -y install libjpeg-dev libpng-dev
sudo apt -y install zlib1g-dev libbz2-dev
sudo apt -y install krb5-multidev
sudo apt -y install openssl libssl-dev
sudo apt -y install libffi-dev
sudo apt -y install libgmp-dev

Download and extract Python using following command from python official site. You can also download latest(3.6.0) version in place of specified below.

wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.5.2/Python-3.5.2.tgz && tar -xvf Python-3.5.2.tgz
sudo mv Python-3.5.2 /opt/ && cd /opt && cd Python-3.5.2

Use below set of commands to compile python source code on your system using altinstall.

sudo make altinstall

Check the Python version installed, using below command

python3.5 -V


Pip is a tool for installing and managing Python packages. Install Pip with Wget and Python.

wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
sudo python3.5 get-pip.py

View a list of helpful commands

pip --help

Check the version of Pip that is installed

pip -V


Virtualenv is a tool to create isolated Python environments. install the virtualenv package

pip install virtualenv

Create an Environment with virtualenv

virtualenv -p python3.5 --no-site-packages env

Activate script

cd env
source bin/activate



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Install Golang. You can check latest version of Golang here https://golang.org/dl/#featured While writing this article, lastest version was 1.9

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:gophers/archive
sudo apt -y update && sudo apt install golang-1.9

After that your installation will be in the /usr/lib/go-1.9 I recommend create symlink:

sudo ln -s /usr/lib/go-1.9 /usr/local/go

And Add /usr/local/go/bin to the PATH environment variable. You can do this by adding this line to your /etc/profile(for a system-wide installation) or $HOME/.profile:


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Install Ruby 2.X with header files in ruby2.0-dev, this will keep your gems from having issues.

sudo apt install -y ruby2.0 ruby2.0-dev

For Ruby RVM (Version Management)

gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys D39DC0E3
\curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io | bash -s stable

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I am using a PPA to fix the nodejs path issue(s)

curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo -E bash -
sudo apt install -y nodejs
sudo npm install bower gulp grunt-cli webpack -g

If installing coffee-script and typing $ coffee produces an error, make sure coffee is not within the $PATH

echo $PATH

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For installation Yarn package manager run:

curl -sS https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/ stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y yarn

Note: Ubuntu 17.04 comes with cmdtest installed by default. If you’re getting errors from installing yarn, you may want to run sudo apt remove cmdtest first. Refer to this for more information.

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Ultimate entertainment platform. http://store.steampowered.com/

sudo apt install -y steam


PCSX-Reloaded — PlayStation 1 Emulator. https://pcsxr.codeplex.com/

Install emulator:

sudo apt install -y pcsxr

pscxr can simulate a bios file. However if you need to use a bios, download and move the file into ~/.pcsx/bios/.

Download games from http://redump.org/discs/system/psx/ or https://rutracker.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4496017 and put under ~/.pcsx/games/

After that run PCSX, configure and play


System Tweaks

Configure Compiz

Open CompizConfig Settings Manager app and from preferences menu import file ./os/home/compiz/Longish Profile.profile (included in current repository)

Increase Inotify Watches Limit

Open sysctl.conf

sudo vim /etc/sysctl.conf

Add this line:

fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 524288

And after run

sudo sysctl -p

Disable Git Certificate Verification

For security reasons, not recommended

sudo git config --global http.sslVerify false


  • «System Settings» > «Keyboard» > «Shortcuts» > «Custom Shortcuts» ctrl+r Terminal gnome-terminal
  • «System Settings» > «Keyboard» > «Shortcuts» > «Custom Shortcuts» ctrl+e Files nautilus -w

VIM Customization

Setup VIM

git clone https://github.com/gmarik/Vundle.vim.git ~/.vim/bundle/Vundle.vim

And copy .vimrc file in your home folder (/home/USERNAME/.vimrc) After run

$ vim

Enable Auto Focus on Opened Applications

In CompizConfig go to «General Options» > «Focus & Raise Behaviour» and set «Focus Prevention Level» to «Off»

Enable Normal Scrollbars

gsettings set com.canonical.desktop.interface scrollbar-mode normal

To revert

gsettings reset com.canonical.desktop.interface scrollbar-mode

Enable User Name in Systray

gsettings set com.canonical.indicator.session show-real-name-on-panel true

Change Datetime Format in Systray

Open dconf-editor and go com > canonical > indicator > datetime Change time format to CUSTOM and time format type %a, %e %b %H:%M %

Enable Minimize App on Dash Click

Open Compizconfig and go to «Desktop» > «Ubuntu Unity Plugin» > «Launcher Tab» and enable «Minimize Single Windows Applications (Unsupported)»

Disable Window Grouping

Open Compizconfig and scroll down to «Ubuntu Unity Plugin». Choose the tab «Switcher». Disable the alt-tab and shift-alt-tab key bindings. («Key to start the switcher» and «Key to switch to the previous window in the Switcher». Click the «Back» button. Scroll down to the «Window management» section. Here you can select another switcher. I enable the «Static Application Switcher», resolve any potential conflicts by setting the setting for «Static Application Switcher». Now you can tweak the switcher by clicking on it. I have changed alt+tab and shift+alt+tab to «Next window (All windows)» and «Prev window (All windows)»

Install Custom Wallpaper

For convert command you need install package imagemagick

mkdir ~/Pictures/Wallpapers
sudo convert ~/Dropbox/images/DSM.jpg ~/Pictures/Wallpapers/DSM.png
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri file:///home/longman/Pictures/Wallpapers/DSM.png

Add Georgian Keyboard

Go to System «Settings» > «Keyboard» > «Text Entry» and add Georgian layout. Also enable «Allow different sources for each window»

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Ubuntu Fixes

These are solutions to fix problems I’ve encountered.

Ubuntu Infinite Login

When you try to login to Ubuntu and it relogs you back into the login screen, this is an infinite loop. The only way I was able to fix it despite all the guides was combining a few of these together.

The first step is to login to a terminal.

CTRL + ALT + F1  (Or F3)

Next, Login as your user who must be able to run sudo.

  • Home Folder Permissions
    • ls -ld ~ should have these permission exactly as: drwxr-xr-x
    • The user:group must be your, e.g. john:john
    • To Fix: sudo chmod 755 ~ and sudo chown -R john:john ~
  • Temp Folder Permissions
    • ls -ld /tmp should have these permission exactly as: drwxrwxrwt
    • The user:group must be root:root on /tmp
    • To Fix: sudo chmod a+wt /tmp
  • Xauthority Ownership
    • ls -lta | grep .Xa should be owned by your user, for example john john
    • If it is root root or anything than your user/group it’s wrong
    • To Fix: sudo chown jesse:jesse .Xauthority
  • Xsession Errors
    • This is just to make sure there are no syntax errors for your reference:
      • To Check: cat ~/.xsession-errors
      • You don’t need to do anything if there are syntax errors, we will move the file
  • Try Moving XAuthority
    • Sometimes it’s as easy to moving Xauthority so a new is generated at login
    • To Fix: sudo ~/.Xauthority ~/.Xauthority.bak
  • Try Reconfiguring LightDM
    • Fix: dpkg-reconfigure lightdm, then select lightdm in the menu
    • Lastly restart lightdm: sudo service lightdm restart
  • Apt Auto Remove Problem
    • I read that it’s possible apt-autoremove may accidentally remove xubuntu-desktopubuntu-desktop and LightDM reports no errors.
      • The ubuntu-desktop will load the Unity interface
      • The xubuntu-desktop will load a different interface I’m not familiar with
      • To Fix: sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
    • If you are using Gnome, try following the post at OMGUbuntu
      • After the Above Try: sudo apt-get autoremove gnome-software && sudo apt-get install gnome-software
      • I was able to get Gnome-Classic working but not Gnome
  • How to Ensure it Works
    • You might be able to login after one of the steps above if you don’t reboot. However, to be certain, you want to reboot to ensure it is fixed, otherwise you’ll be doing this over and over

Sound Indicator Not Showing

This appears in the top-right menu on Unity. Tested in 14/15.

This will also fix Tweak UI if a sound item is missing.

sudo apt install -y indicator-sound

For Unity (Default)

sudo killall unity-panel-service

For Gnome

sudo killall gnome-panel

Install Gnome 3

If you prefer Gnome 3 over the Unity desktop it’s easy to install:

sudo apt install -y ubuntu-gnome-desktop
sudo service gdm restart (Or a reboot is easier)

Unity uses lightdm and Gnome uses gdm, it’s easiest to stick with lightdm.

If you want the default login a certain one select either lightdm or gdm. If you want to change it later run:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure gdm

Easy Window Resize

Without Compiz, you can resize windows very nicely:

  • Focus on a window
  • Hold ALT + Middle Mouse Click + Drag
  • Note: Depending on where you position your mouse to will resize up/down/left/right

Left or Right Close Buttons

Run this simple command in the terminal and you will see the positions change right away.

Move to right (terminal)

gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences button-layout ':minimize,maximize,close'

Move to left (terminal)

gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences button-layout 'close,minimize,maximize:'

Fix Gnome Lockscreen

In terminal make sure this is false, then try your hotkey ctrl+alt+l or if you set it like super+l in the settings:

gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.lockdown disable-lock-screen 'false'

Gnome Extensions

You need to use Firefox or IceWeasle at https://extensions.gnome.org/ to toggle these items. I suggest creating an account so you have a record.

Reload Gnome Freeze

This is a rare things, it happens much more in unity and requires a lot more «damaging» things. To fix a gnome that seems frozen do the following:

ALT + F2 enter in r (lowecase) and press Enter

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Adjust Mouse and Devices

When using a USB mouse sometimes the speed is just not right, in my case it’s too slow often. Here is how to adjust it:

xinput --list

I get something like this:

⎡ Virtual core pointer                      id=2    [master pointer  (3)]
⎜   ↳ Virtual core XTEST pointer                id=4    [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎜   ↳ ETPS/2 Elantech Touchpad                  id=15   [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎜   ↳ Logitech Unifying Device. Wireless PID:101b   id=12   [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎣ Virtual core keyboard                     id=3    [master keyboard (2)]
    ↳ Virtual core XTEST keyboard               id=5    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Power Button                              id=6    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Video Bus                                 id=7    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Power Button                              id=8    [slave  keyboard (3)]

The ID of my mouse is 12. You can see all the properties with:

$ xinput --list-props 12

Then you can adjust the settings the String value and a value at the end:

$ xinput --set-prop 12 "Device Accel Constant Deceleration" 2

Preserve Settings

To keep the settings in Gnome, do the following:

$ cd ~
$ touch gnome-boot.sh && chmod +x gnome-boot.sh

Example of gnome-boot.sh file (Note: You can call it whatever you like):

xinput --set-prop 12 "Device Accel Constant Deceleration" 4

Then Add the Bash script the Gnome Session:

$ gnome-session-properties

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Virtual Machine Related

This has to do with VirtualBox

Fix Mouse Side Buttons in VMWare

Append the following to yourbox.vmx with the machine off.

mouse.vusb.enable = "TRUE"
mouse.vusb.useBasicMouse = "FALSE"
usb.generic.allowHID = "TRUE"

Vagrant VBGuest Fix:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-vbguest

vagrant ssh
sudo ln -s /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-4.3.10/lib/VBoxGuestAdditions /usr/lib/VBoxGuestAdditions

Windows 8 VirtualBox Fix

Running Windows 8 in Virtualbox has an odd error, run this in cmd or powershell, or terminal on linux.

vboxmanage list vms
vboxmanage setextradata "The Box Name" VBoxInternal/CPUM/CMPXCHG16B 1

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Synchronize Configurations

Sync Sublime Text

I am using Dropbox for syncing configurations

Install Package Control https://packagecontrol.io/installation#st3


cd ~/.config/sublime-text-3/Packages/
rm -rf User
ln -s ~/Dropbox/workspace/appdata/sublime-text-3/Packages/User

Sync FileZilla

cd ~/.config/filezilla
rm -f sitemanager.xml
ln -s ~/Dropbox/workspace/appdata/filezilla/sitemanager.xml

Chrome Addons

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Other Applications

  • DragonDisk S3
  • Kazam (Screen Recorder)
  • Shutter
  • gnome-system-tools
  • Terminator
  • Gdeb
  • MySQL Workbench
  • Bleachbit (Trash Cleaner)
  • Preload (Intelligent Bootup Time)

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Clean System

Remove not neccessary apps from startup

Show system apps in Startup Applications

sudo sed -i 's/NoDisplay=true/NoDisplay=false/g' /etc/xdg/autostart/*.desktop

Open «Startup Applications» and uncheck apps: Chat, Orca Screen Reader, Zeitgest Datahub

Hide system apps

sudo sed -i 's/NoDisplay=false/NoDisplay=true/g' /etc/xdg/autostart/*.desktop

Remove rythmbox audio player

sudo apt purge rhythmbox

Remove Totem video player

sudo apt purge totem

Remove Unwanted Lenses

sudo apt autoremove unity-lens-music unity-lens-photos unity-lens-shopping unity-lens-video

Clean System

sudo apt autoremove
sudo apt clean
sudo apt autoclean